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  • Mesangial Deposits

    Electron microscopy of a biopsy specimen in a patient with IgA nephropathy. Electron dense deposits can be identified in the mesangium (black arrows), which on immunofluorescence would have predominant or co-dominant IgA staining. Note that although mesangial IgA deposits are classic in IgA nephropathy and IgA vasculitis (former Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis), they can be seen in other conditions including infection-associated glomerulonephritis, inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, sarcoidosis, and certain dermatologic conditions. GBM; glomerular basement membrane. RBC; red blood cells. Mes; mesangium. CS; capillary space. Images courtesy of Patrick Walker, MD.
  • Perihilar FSGS

    Perihilar variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Hyaline deposition and sclerosis occur at the vascular pole of the glomerulus. This variant is believed to be a secondary form of FSGS, occurring as an adaptive response to other injuries resulting in loss of functioning nephrons, such as in obesity-related kidney disease. Images courtesy of Patrick Walker, MD.
  • Glomerulomegaly

    A normal glomerulus (left) and hypertrophied glomerulus (glomerulomegaly, right). Glomerulomegaly is an adaptive response to decreased nephron number (e.g. prematurity) and/or increased demand (e.g. obesity). Patients with glomerulomegaly may have sub-nephrotic or nephrotic-range proteinuria, but other features of nephrotic syndrome are rare. Images courtesy of Patrick Walker, MD.